El cáncer de riñón es una enfermedad caracterizada por la proliferación anormal y descontrolada de un tipo de células malignas. El cáncer de células renales o adenocarcinoma de células renales es el más frecuente, siendo el responsable de 9 de cada 10 casos. El cáncer de riñón es el tercer tumor urológico más frecuente en el hombre por detrás del cáncer de próstata y de vejiga. De todos los cánceres, representa el sexto más frecuente en los hombres y el décimo en las mujeres. Es más frecuente en varones que en mujeres y se diagnostica principalmente entre los 60 y 70 años de edad.

Debido a la utilización masiva de pruebas radiológicas, como la ecografía o la tomografía computerizada (TAC), se ha producido un aumento en la detección de estos tumores y muchos se diagnostican de forma casual sin que el paciente tenga síntomas.

El principal factor de riesgo en el desarrollo de este tumor es el tabaco. El riesgo aumentado parece estar relacionado con la cantidad de tabaco que se fuma y disminuye al abandonar el hábito, aunque requiere un largo plazo para alcanzar el nivel de riesgo de una persona que nunca ha fumado. También están implicados:  la obesidad por las alteraciones hormonales que inducen, y la exposición a ciertas sustancias en el lugar de trabajo como son el asbesto, el cadmio (un metal), algunos herbicidas, benceno y solventes orgánicos, particularmente al tricloroetileno. Existen factores de riesgo genéticos y hereditarios que aumentan la probabilidad de padecer este tumor. Por ello, es importante que las personas con antecedentes familiares de cáncer de riñón visiten a su médico para buscar consejo genético. El riesgo de cáncer de riñón es mayor en las personas con presión arterial elevada y en las personas con una enfermedad renal avanzada, especialmente aquellas que requieren de diálisis.

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Doctor François Peinado.

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