La enfermedad renal crónica afecta al 15 por ciento de la población.

La Sociedad Española de Nefrología ha presentado hace escasas semanas un estudio sobre el número de personas que hay en España con Enfermedad Renal Crónica, es decir, aquellas cuyos riñones no funcionan correctamente y precisan de seguimiento y tratamiento por los nefrólogos. La investigación se ha realizado sobre más de 11.000 personas y concluye que esta enfermedad afecta al 15 por ciento de la población. Las causas del aumento de esta patología se deben, principalmente, al envejecimiento de la población y a patologías como la hipertensión arterial, la diabetes y las enfermedades cardiovasculares. Esta enfermedad afecta principalmente a los hombres triplicando al número de mujeres. Otro dato a destacar es que hasta un 40 por ciento de los pacientes desconocen que padecen esta condición puesto que cuando se manifiesta clínicamente, ya han pasado muchos años del inicio de la misma.

La enfermedad se va desarrollando con el envejecimiento experimentando un notable incremento a partir de los 65 años. Muchos de estos pacientes acaban en diálisis o trasplante renal por lo que el gran reto está en prevenirla y detectarla precozmente para evitar el número de muertes que conlleva; según los datos de la Sociedad de Nefrología, la lista de trasplantes está aumentado y en 2015, más de 5.000 personas murieron antes de recibir uno.

El ejercicio físico y las dietas hipocalóricas consiguen disminuir más de un 30% el riesgo de padecer esta enfermedad en los pacientes diabéticos. La obesidad eleva de forma sustancial las probabilidades de que el funcionamiento renal se vea afectado.

El cuidado de todos los factores de riesgo es primordial: los pacientes deben medirse la tensión arterial y controlar la glucemia periódicamente, tener actividad física regular, y hacerse una revisión anual a través de un análisis de sangre y orina para el estudio de la función renal.

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