El Cáncer de próstata es uno de los más frecuentes en nuestros días.

El cáncer de próstata es el tumor diagnosticado no cutáneo más frecuente en la mayoría de los países occidentales. En los EEUU, 1 de cada 6 hombres serán diagnosticados de esta enfermedad, probabilidad que aumenta con la edad.
La próstata es una pequeña glándula situada debajo de la vejiga que aumenta de tamaño por su parte central a medida que los hombres envejecen. Esta hiperplasia benigna no tiene relación con el cáncer de próstata, ya que la mayoría de los cánceres de próstata se localizan en la parte periférica de la glándula. Para comprenderlo mejor utilizamos el símil de la naranja, en el interior suele asentarse la hiperplasia y en la cáscara, el cáncer.

La próstata produce una sustancia única en el organismo que se denomina Antígeno Prostático Específico (PSA). Este marcador, que se mide en sangre, permite determinar la posibilidad de tener un cáncer de próstata. A medida que la próstata va creciendo con el envejecimiento, va produciendo más PSA y los límites varían según la edad y el tamaño de la próstata (entre 3 y 4 ng/ml).

Hay controversia con este marcador sanguíneo,ya que es un parámetro no exacto: hay pacientes con PSA de 8 que no tienen cáncer y otros con 3,5 con cáncer de próstata. Además, se realizan muchas biopsias de próstata que diagnostican cánceres indolentes, que nunca tendrían una afectación severa en la vida del paciente. Por esta razón, no se aconseja realizar el PSA en pacientes mayores de 75-80 años en términos generales.

Con el objetivo de no realizar tantas biopsias de próstata de forma aleatoria, se han desarrollado técnicas de diagnóstico más avanzadas como la resonancia multiparamétrica de próstata, prueba radiológica que realiza un estudio más preciso de la próstata y permite determinar la probabilidad de un cáncer. La mayoría de los cánceres de próstata diagnosticados están localizados en la próstata, por lo que los tratamientos son muy eficaces.

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